Cry, The Beloved Country's Poetic Journey
A Cry for Home
During his years as a teacher in Ixopo and Pietermaritzburg in the period 1925-35, Paton wrote poetry and fiction—little or none of it published. In 1935, he put aside this literary work in order to immerse himself in his work of penal reform at Diepkloof Reformatory, where his task was to turn a harsh prison into a school to rehabilitate delinquent boys. It was in the course of a leave of absence to study penal institutions in Europe and North America that the creative urge again came upon him. In Trondheim, Norway, following a train journey through an unfamiliar landscape of mountains, streams and pine forests, he was powerfully seized by a longing for home and composed the lyric opening of Cry the Beloved Country: "There is a lovely road that runs from Ixopo into the hills."
Plucked from the Bible
Beyond the opening lyrical prelude, there are a variety of poetic, dramatic and oratorical elements in the novel. Three quite different styles of oratory are represented in Rev. Msimangu's eloquent sermon at Ezenzeleni; in John Kumalo's political rant; and in the draft of an intended speech found in the study of the murdered man, Arthur Jarvis. Despite these instances of stylistic variation, the style of the novel as a whole has been frequently described as "Biblical"; which may be an appropriate term for some passages that employ the devices of Hebrew poetry—devices that carry over into good Bible translations. (Similar devices are apparent in the oratorical style of Martin Luther King, Jr., for example.)
Aphorism (or "wise saying"), is another characteristic of Hebrew poetry evident in the novel in such instances as Rev. Msimangu's remark: "I have one great fear in my heart, that one day when they are turned to loving, they will find we have turned to hating." Hebrew poetry also employs apostrophe—in which someone or something is directly addressed, as the country of South Africa is addressed in the passage from which the novel takes its title: "Cry, the beloved country for the unborn child that is the inheritor of our fear. Let him not love the earth too deeply." But in seeking Biblical qualities in the novel's style, one ought not overlook how its musicality also derives from Paton's attempt to approximate the music of the Zulu language in the speech of some characters. Ultimately, if the novel reads "like a lovely poem" it is mainly because it was written by someone who had practiced the art of poetry and who had long aspired to be a poet, as well.