García Márquez saw how the loss of identity threatened to break apart the people in ways that isolated them culturally from each other as well as from the world. His desire in writing One Hundred Years of Solitude was to reclaim the communal culture and history of Latin America. He created Macondo as a metaphorical landscape upon which "the truth" of the voiceless could be played out for the world to witness before it might be lost forever.
It seems clear that the author intended for readers to question the various levels of solitude at play in the book. On a broad level, he wanted to encourage people to question the validity of the "official history" of Latin America, which tended to exile or omit certain uncomfortable realities. He also wanted to make official Latin America's collectively understood truth, the one that belonged to its people. By exposing this truth, he hoped to bring Latin America out of what seemed to be a globally imposed isolation.