Note: Cooking each type of mushroom separately helps them caramelize. To add extra heat to this dish, tear the chile de arbol peppers in half to release their seeds. If you prefer, substitute for the mint 3 to 4 Tbsp. of another tender, fresh herb like basil, tarragon, or chives.
3 Tbsp. olive oil, divided
1/2 pound oyster mushrooms, trimmed
1 1/2 tsp. kosher salt, divided, plus more to taste
3/8 tsp. freshly ground black pepper, divided, plus more to taste
1/2 pound shiitake mushrooms, stemmed and sliced
1 pound cremini mushrooms, quartered
6 shallots, cut into large chunks
4 cloves garlic, chopped
2 dried chile de arbol peppers
Zest from 1/2 lemon, removed in large strips using a vegetable peeler
1 pound dried buckwheat soba noodles
1 cup loosely packed mint leaves (from about 1 small bunch), roughly chopped
Total time: 30 minutes
Heat 1 Tbsp. oil in a large, deep skillet over medium-high heat. Add oyster mushrooms, 1/2 tsp. salt, and 1/8 tsp. pepper and cook, stirring occasionally, until golden brown, 3 to 4 minutes.
Transfer mushrooms to a large plate, scrape out any sticky bits from skillet, and return skillet to medium-high heat.
Repeat cooking process with 1 Tbsp. oil, shiitake mushrooms, 1/2 tsp. salt, and 1/8 tsp. pepper, this time cooking for 4 to 5 minutes, until golden brown. (If the skillet seems too dry any time during cooking, add 1 Tbsp. or so of water.) Transfer to plate with reserved oyster mushrooms.
Heat remaining 1 Tbsp. oil in skillet, add cremini mushrooms, shallots, 1/2 tsp. salt, and 1/8 tsp. pepper and cook until shallots are just softened and mushrooms are golden brown, 6 to 8 minutes.
Add garlic, peppers, and zest and cook, stirring constantly, for 1 minute more. Stir in reserved oyster and shiitake mushrooms, then set skillet aside.
Meanwhile, bring a large pot of generously salted water to a boil. Add noodles and cook according to package instructions. Reserve 3 cups of the cooking water, then drain noodles well.
Return skillet to medium heat and stir 1 1/2 cups of the reserved water into the mushroom mixture. Add noodles and salt and pepper to taste and toss until well coated. (Noodles should be moist, with just a little bit of liquid at the bottom of the skillet. Add more reserved water, as necessary.)
Remove skillet from heat and discard chiles and lemon zest. Add mint, toss well, and serve.